There were rare scenes of tension in the upper house during the vote, which showcased an unusual alliance between French President Emmanuel Macron's left- and right-wing opponents. Senators voted 211 against and 44 in favor in the first vote, with the second vote confirming the rejection of the deal.

In 2019, Macron and his centrist parliamentary allies narrowly won approval in the National Assembly, the lower house of parliament.

What will happen to the agreement?

To enter into full force, the agreement must be ratified by the parliaments of all EU countries. While a rejection in the Senate is a setback for the government backing the deal, a no vote does not invalidate it.

Under EU rules, a rejection is only valid if the government formally notifies the EU, which Macron is not expected to do.

In France, the second country to not ratify the deal, the government has not announced how it will handle the situation, but one option is reportedly to take the deal back to the National Assembly for a new debate and vote.

Cyprus, the first member to reject the agreement, has not formally notified the EU Commission, so the agreement will remain in place until a new vote is held. The EU-Canada free trade agreement has been ratified in 17 EU member states, with 10 countries still in the process.